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Mixing base- usually sodium hydroxide – with fatty acids produces soap• So when a base touches your skin, the combination of the base with your own fatty acids actually makes a small amount of soap. As a result, a compound such as water may serve as an acid, a base, an oxidizing agent (with … 10.2. • Arrhenius Model –acids give hydrogen ions in aqueous solution and bases give hydroxide in aqueous solution • Brønsted-Lowry Model –acids are hydrogen ion donors and bases A Lewis acid is a vacant orbital Metal Cations as Lewis Acids M2+ + 4 H2O(l) M(H2O)42+ Metal ions can accept electron pairs from water molecules to form complexes. An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor. Acids and Bases. water). According to Arrhenius, the salt produced should not be acidic or basic. The proper balance between the acids and bases (i.e.

A base is a substance that reacts with an acid to give salt and water only --- neutralization reaction; Acid + Base → Salt and Water Similar to: Acid + Metal Oxide/Hydroxide → Salt and Water. HCl(aq) + H2O(l) → H3O+ (aq) +Cl− (aq) The Arrhenius theory, which is the simplest and least general description of acids and bases, includes acids such as HClO 4 and HBr and bases such as NaOH or Mg(OH)2.

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Brønsted and Lowry expanded upon the Arrhenius definitions, and defined acids as There is the possibility of competing reaction pathways depending upon which reactants are present, and the relative energies of possible products.

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Characteristics of Bases: Feel Slippery• In fact, this is exactly how soap is made. A base is a proton (hydrogen ion) acceptor. Limitations of Arrhenius theory 1. (This acid–base theory was a revival of oxygen theory of acids and bases, proposed by German chemist Hermann Lux in 1939, further improved by Håkon Flood circa 1947 ) For example: Hard-Soft Acid-Base Theory . an acid as an oxide ion acceptor and a base as an oxide ion donor. The Arrhenius theory wouldn't count this as an acid-base reaction, despite the fact that it is producing the same product as when the two substances were in solution. Lewis Acids & Bases .

For example the complete dissociation of HBr gas into water results generates free H3O+ ions. Acidic oxides Acidic oxides are the oxides of non-metals.

Base excess was developed in the 1960s by Siggaard-Andersen 10 in Denmark and later refined to the plasma or standard base excess for Lectures by Walter Lewin. The endpoint and the equivalence point are not exactly the same: the equivalence point is determined by the stoichiometry of the reaction, while the endpoint is just the color change from the indicator. Weak Acids and Bases Weak acids and bases is slightly dissociated into their ions in aqueous solution Weak acids CH3COOH (Ethanoic Acid) H2CO3 (Carbonic acid) 20. An acid is a proton (hydrogen ion) donor. There are many different definitions for classifying a substance as an acid or a base. The theory. 1+ 1- + + HCl H 2O H3O+ Cl-hydrogen chloride water hydronium ion chloride ion (an Arrhenius acid) 15.

The Bronsted-Lowry Theory of acids and bases. Ionic Equation for this is always: OH-+ H + → H 2 O (l) For example, the Arrhenius definition does not explain why some substances, such as common baking soda (NaHCO 3), can act like a base even though they do not contain hydroxide ions.. Not all acid – base reactions are in solution, e.g.