Ammonia and ammonium

Ammonia (NH 3) is a common toxicant derived from wastes (see Figure 1), fertilizers and natural processes. Ammonia occurs naturally and is found throughout the environment in soil, air, and water. Ammonia is a weak base and is un-ionized.

Ammonia, Ammonium Ammonium (NH 4 +) — or its uncharged form ammonia (NH 3) — is a form of nitrogen which aquatic plants can absorb and incorporate into proteins, amino acids, and other molecules. Toxic levels of un-ionized ammonia are usually between 0.5 and 2.0 mg/L for most pond fish, but sublethal effects and stress may occur at concentrations as low as 0.1 to 0.3 mg/L. In nature, ammonia exists as both NH3 and in the ionic form of ammonia as ammonium ion (NH4+). A buffering reaction: NH3+ H+ --> NH4+ is used to maintain the relative amount of each form.

It is a gas at room temperature and is lighter than air. In organic chemistry labs ammonia is often used in other, more easy to handle forms. Ammonia is often stored as a liquid in high pressure tanks. Ammonia solutions are used to clean, bleach, and deodorize; to etch aluminum; to saponify (hydolyze) oils and fats; and in chemical manufacture. Ammonia definition is - a pungent colorless gaseous alkaline compound of nitrogen and hydrogen NH3 that is very soluble in water and can easily be condensed to a liquid by cold and pressure. Ammonia has been continuously used as a refrigerant since the initial practical use of the vapor- ... there is a growing interest in ammonia as a refrigerant, both by itself, and in cascade ... • Direct injection of ammonium hydroxide for stack emissions to neutralize sulfur oxides from sulfur- Although only ammonium is directly available for nitrification TKN should still be measured in the influent to the wastewater treatment plant as well because it also considers organic nitrogen. Ammonia contains one Nitrogen and three Hydrogen whereas Ammonium contains one Nitrogen and Four Hydrogen.

As a result of this natural process, ammonia does not last long in … For example, liquid sources of ammonia are ammonium hydroxide and ammonia in MeOH (typically 2N or 7N).

The ammonia sold for household use is a dilute water solution of ammonia in which ammonium hydroxide is the active cleansing agent. Ammonia also is renewed naturally as part of the nitrogen cycle that already occurs as plants fertilize. To consume environmental ammonia, we investigated the organic base-catalyzed synthesis of urea.

Unionized ammonia is highly toxic to fish, but the ammonium ion is harmless except at extremely high concentrations.

Ammonium (NH ₄ +) is a positively charged ion (or cation) that is formed by the addition of a hydrogen proton to ammonia (NH ₃).This ammonium ion is created when ammonia, which is a weak alkaline, reacts with a Bronsted acid.